I I

Eurocode 3 Table of design properties for rectangular steel profiles - Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS)

Description:
Design aid - Table of design properties for rectangular hollow steel sections (RHS) including section dimensions, cross-section properties (area A, second moment of area I, elastic modulus Wel, plastic modulus Wpl), strength properties (elastic moment Mel, plastic moment Mpl, plastic shear Vpl), and buckling properties (section class, buckling curves)
According to:
EN 1993-1-1:2005+AC2:2009 Sections 6.2 & 6.3
Supported National Annexes:
Nationally Defined Parameters (NDPs) automatically filled for supported countries (left blank otherwise)
All Calculations
Input
Steel partial material safety factor for cross-section resistance in accordance with EN1993-1-1 §6.1 and the National Annex for the case of steel buildings, or the relevant parts of EN1993 for other types of structures. It affects the resistance of profiles in axial force, shear, bending.
Notation for Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) according to EN1993-1-1
Notation for Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) according to EN1993-1-1
Tables
Design properties of hot finished Rectangular Hollow Section (RHS) for S235 steel class (γM0 = 1.00, units = mm)
Profile dimensionsArea propertiesInertia properties about major axis y-yInertia properties about minor axis z-zTorsional propertiesAxial force & shear resistanceBending major axis y-yBending minor axis z-zTorsional resistanceBuckling curveSection classification
Profile Drawing Depth
h
[mm]
Width
b
[mm]
Wall thickness
t
[mm]
Outer rounding radius
ro
[mm]
Inner rounding radius
ri
[mm]
Weight
m
[kg/m]
External perimeter
P
[m]
Area
A
[mm2]
Shear area z-z
Av,z
[mm2]
(for η=1.2)
Shear area y-y
Av,y
[mm2]
Second moment of area
Iy
[×106 mm4]
Radius of gyration
iy
[mm]
Elastic section modulus
Wel,y
[×103 mm3]
Plastic section modulus
Wpl,y
[×103 mm3]
Second moment of area
Iz
[×106 mm4]
Radius of gyration
iz
[mm]
Elastic section modulus
Wel,z
[×103 mm3]
Plastic section modulus
Wpl,z
[×103 mm3]
Torsion constant
IT
[×103 mm4]
Torsion modulus
WT
[×103 mm3]
Design plastic axial force resistance
Npl,Rd
[kN]
Design plastic shear force resistance z-z
Vpl,Rd,z
[kN]
Design plastic shear force resistance y-y
Vpl,Rd,y
[kN]
Design elastic bending moment resistance
Mel,Rd,y
[kNm]
Design plastic bending moment resistance
Mpl,Rd,y
[kNm]
Design elastic bending moment resistance
Mel,Rd,z
[kNm]
Design plastic bending moment resistance
Mpl,Rd,z
[kNm]
Design torsional moment resistance
Tpl,Rd
[kNm]
Buckling curve Pure bending about major axis y-y Pure bending about minor axis z-z Pure uniform compression
RHS 50x30 / 2.6 dxf 50 30 2.6 3.9 2.6 3.00 0.153 382 239 143 0.1218 17.9 4.873 6.118 0.05375 11.9 3.584 4.246 121.0 5.897 89.70 32.37 19.42 1.15 1.44 0.84 1.00 0.80 a 1 1 1
RHS 50x30 / 3.2 dxf 50 30 3.2 4.8 3.2 3.61 0.152 460 288 173 0.1421 17.6 5.683 7.246 0.06197 11.6 4.132 5.001 141.9 6.796 108.11 39.01 23.41 1.34 1.70 0.97 1.18 0.92 a 1 1 1
RHS 50x30 / 4 dxf 50 30 4.0 6.0 4.0 4.39 0.150 559 349 210 0.1649 17.2 6.596 8.593 0.07084 11.3 4.722 5.885 165.9 7.771 131.33 47.39 28.43 1.55 2.02 1.11 1.38 1.05 a 1 1 1
RHS 50x30 / 5 dxf 50 30 5.0 7.5 5.0 5.28 0.147 673 421 252 0.1871 16.7 7.486 10.03 0.07888 10.8 5.258 6.797 189.7 8.667 158.20 57.08 34.25 1.76 2.36 1.24 1.60 1.18 a 1 1 1
RHS 60x40 / 2.6 dxf 60 40 2.6 3.9 2.6 3.81 0.193 486 291 194 0.2358 22.0 7.862 9.649 0.1244 16.0 6.220 7.257 259.3 10.04 114.14 39.54 26.36 1.85 2.27 1.46 1.71 1.36 a 1 1 1
RHS 60x40 / 3.2 dxf 60 40 3.2 4.8 3.2 4.62 0.192 588 353 235 0.2782 21.8 9.275 11.52 0.1457 15.7 7.287 8.639 308.0 11.74 138.19 47.87 31.91 2.18 2.71 1.71 2.03 1.59 a 1 1 1
RHS 60x40 / 4 dxf 60 40 4.0 6.0 4.0 5.64 0.190 719 431 288 0.3283 21.4 10.94 13.83 0.1703 15.4 8.517 10.32 366.6 13.71 168.93 58.52 39.01 2.57 3.25 2.00 2.42 1.86 a 1 1 1
RHS 60x40 / 5 dxf 60 40 5.0 7.5 5.0 6.85 0.187 873 524 349 0.3809 20.9 12.70 16.39 0.1953 15.0 9.767 12.16 429.8 15.71 205.20 71.08 47.39 2.98 3.85 2.30 2.86 2.13 a 1 1 1
RHS 60x40 / 6.3 dxf 60 40 6.3 9.4 6.3 8.31 0.184 1059 635 423 0.4339 20.2 14.46 19.23 0.2192 14.4 10.96 14.15 495.5 17.64 248.78 86.18 57.45 3.40 4.52 2.58 3.33 2.39 a 1 1 1
RHS 80x40 / 3.2 dxf 80 40 3.2 4.8 3.2 5.62 0.232 716 477 239 0.5718 28.3 14.30 18.04 0.1892 16.3 9.459 10.99 461.9 16.08 168.27 64.77 32.38 3.36 4.24 2.22 2.58 2.18 a 1 1 1
RHS 80x40 / 4 dxf 80 40 4.0 6.0 4.0 6.90 0.230 879 586 293 0.682 27.9 17.05 21.82 0.2224 15.9 11.12 13.20 551.9 18.90 206.53 79.49 39.75 4.01 5.13 2.61 3.10 2.56 a 1 1 1
RHS 80x40 / 5 dxf 80 40 5.0 7.5 5.0 8.42 0.227 1073 715 358 0.8028 27.4 20.07 26.13 0.257 15.5 12.85 15.66 650.5 21.85 252.20 97.07 48.54 4.72 6.14 3.02 3.68 2.97 a 1 1 1
RHS 80x40 / 6.3 dxf 80 40 6.3 9.4 6.3 10.3 0.224 1311 874 437 0.9328 26.7 23.32 31.08 0.2916 14.9 14.58 18.40 756.3 24.84 308.00 118.55 59.28 5.48 7.30 3.43 4.32 3.37 a 1 1 1
RHS 80x40 / 8 dxf 80 40 8.0 12.0 8.0 12.5 0.219 1595 1064 532 1.060 25.8 26.50 36.47 0.3211 14.2 16.05 21.20 857.6 27.45 374.90 144.30 72.15 6.23 8.57 3.77 4.98 3.72 a 1 1 1
RHS 90x50 / 3.2 dxf 90 50 3.2 4.8 3.2 6.63 0.272 844 543 301 0.8913 32.5 19.81 24.56 0.3527 20.4 14.11 16.23 808.7 23.58 198.35 73.62 40.90 4.65 5.77 3.32 3.81 3.20 a 1 1 1
RHS 90x50 / 4 dxf 90 50 4.0 6.0 4.0 8.15 0.270 1039 668 371 1.071 32.1 23.80 29.85 0.4195 20.1 16.78 19.63 975.2 28.02 244.13 90.61 50.34 5.59 7.01 3.94 4.61 3.80 a 1 1 1
RHS 90x50 / 5 dxf 90 50 5.0 7.5 5.0 9.99 0.267 1273 818 455 1.273 31.6 28.28 35.99 0.4921 19.7 19.69 23.53 1164 32.86 299.20 111.05 61.69 6.65 8.46 4.63 5.53 4.46 a 1 1 1
RHS 90x50 / 6.3 dxf 90 50 6.3 9.4 6.3 12.3 0.264 1563 1005 558 1.499 31.0 33.30 43.22 0.5699 19.1 22.80 28.02 1377 38.06 367.22 136.30 75.72 7.83 10.16 5.36 6.58 5.16 a 1 1 1
RHS 90x50 / 8 dxf 90 50 8.0 12.0 8.0 15.0 0.259 1915 1231 684 1.736 30.1 38.57 51.41 0.6458 18.4 25.83 32.94 1603 43.21 450.10 167.06 92.81 9.06 12.08 6.07 7.74 5.86 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x50 / 3.2 dxf 100 50 3.2 4.8 3.2 7.13 0.292 908 605 303 1.159 35.7 23.17 28.94 0.3878 20.7 15.51 17.73 934.5 26.38 213.39 82.13 41.07 5.45 6.80 3.64 4.17 3.58 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x50 / 4 dxf 100 50 4.0 6.0 4.0 8.78 0.290 1119 746 373 1.396 35.3 27.92 35.24 0.4619 20.3 18.48 21.47 1128 31.40 262.93 101.20 50.60 6.56 8.28 4.34 5.05 4.26 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x50 / 5 dxf 100 50 5.0 7.5 5.0 10.8 0.287 1373 915 458 1.665 34.8 33.30 42.61 0.543 19.9 21.72 25.78 1347 36.91 322.70 124.21 62.10 7.83 10.01 5.10 6.06 5.01 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x50 / 6.3 dxf 100 50 6.3 9.4 6.3 13.3 0.284 1689 1126 563 1.971 34.2 39.42 51.35 0.6305 19.3 25.22 30.77 1597 42.89 396.83 152.74 76.37 9.26 12.07 5.93 7.23 5.82 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x50 / 8 dxf 100 50 8.0 12.0 8.0 16.3 0.279 2075 1384 692 2.299 33.3 45.98 61.38 0.7172 18.6 28.69 36.30 1864 48.89 487.70 187.72 93.86 10.80 14.43 6.74 8.53 6.63 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x60 / 3.2 dxf 100 60 3.2 4.8 3.2 7.63 0.312 972 608 365 1.309 36.7 26.17 32.04 0.5883 24.6 19.61 22.43 1285 32.36 228.43 82.43 49.46 6.15 7.53 4.61 5.27 4.39 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x60 / 4 dxf 100 60 4.0 6.0 4.0 9.41 0.310 1199 749 450 1.580 36.3 31.61 39.08 0.7052 24.3 23.51 27.27 1559 38.74 281.73 101.66 61.00 7.43 9.18 5.52 6.41 5.26 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x60 / 5 dxf 100 60 5.0 7.5 5.0 11.6 0.307 1473 921 552 1.891 35.8 37.82 47.36 0.8359 23.8 27.86 32.89 1875 45.86 346.20 124.92 74.95 8.89 11.13 6.55 7.73 6.22 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x60 / 6.3 dxf 100 60 6.3 9.4 6.3 14.2 0.304 1815 1134 680 2.248 35.2 44.96 57.25 0.9815 23.3 32.72 39.53 2244 53.81 426.44 153.88 92.33 10.56 13.45 7.69 9.29 7.30 a 1 1 1
RHS 100x60 / 8 dxf 100 60 8.0 12.0 8.0 17.5 0.299 2235 1397 838 2.638 34.4 52.77 68.74 1.133 22.5 37.78 47.08 2654 62.17 525.30 189.55 113.73 12.40 16.15 8.88 11.06 8.43 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x60 / 4 dxf 120 60 4.0 6.0 4.0 10.7 0.350 1359 906 453 2.487 42.8 41.46 51.87 0.8309 24.7 27.70 31.75 2007 47.10 319.33 122.91 61.45 9.74 12.19 6.51 7.46 6.39 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x60 / 5 dxf 120 60 5.0 7.5 5.0 13.1 0.347 1673 1115 558 2.992 42.3 49.87 63.09 0.9876 24.3 32.92 38.39 2418 55.95 393.20 151.34 75.67 11.72 14.83 7.74 9.02 7.59 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x60 / 6.3 dxf 120 60 6.3 9.4 6.3 16.2 0.344 2067 1378 689 3.583 41.6 59.71 76.66 1.164 23.7 38.80 46.30 2900 65.94 485.66 186.93 93.47 14.03 18.01 9.12 10.88 8.95 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x60 / 8 dxf 120 60 8.0 12.0 8.0 20.1 0.339 2555 1704 852 4.247 40.8 70.79 92.70 1.351 23.0 45.05 55.40 3443 76.64 600.50 231.13 115.57 16.64 21.78 10.59 13.02 10.40 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x60 / 10 dxf 120 60 10.0 15.0 10.0 24.3 0.334 3093 2062 1031 4.881 39.7 81.36 109.2 1.515 22.1 50.51 64.38 3957 86.13 726.78 279.74 139.87 19.12 25.65 11.87 15.13 11.69 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x80 / 4 dxf 120 80 4.0 6.0 4.0 11.9 0.390 1519 911 608 3.026 44.6 50.43 61.15 1.607 32.5 40.18 46.14 3304 64.98 356.93 123.64 82.43 11.85 14.37 9.44 10.84 8.82 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x80 / 5 dxf 120 80 5.0 7.5 5.0 14.7 0.387 1873 1124 749 3.654 44.2 60.90 74.59 1.929 32.1 48.24 56.13 4013 77.88 440.20 152.49 101.66 14.31 17.53 11.34 13.19 10.57 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x80 / 6.3 dxf 120 80 6.3 9.4 6.3 18.2 0.384 2319 1391 927 4.398 43.6 73.30 90.98 2.305 31.5 57.62 68.22 4866 92.87 544.88 188.75 125.84 17.23 21.38 13.54 16.03 12.60 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x80 / 8 dxf 120 80 8.0 12.0 8.0 22.6 0.379 2875 1725 1150 5.253 42.7 87.54 110.6 2.726 30.8 68.14 82.55 5866 109.7 675.70 234.07 156.05 20.57 26.00 16.01 19.40 14.88 a 1 1 1
RHS 120x80 / 10 dxf 120 80 10.0 15.0 10.0 27.4 0.374 3493 2096 1397 6.095 41.8 101.6 131.2 3.126 29.9 78.14 97.30 6876 125.7 820.78 284.33 189.55 23.87 30.82 18.36 22.87 17.06 a 1 1 1
RHS 140x80 / 4 dxf 140 80 4.0 6.0 4.0 13.2 0.430 1679 1068 610 4.406 51.2 62.94 77.14 1.838 33.1 45.96 52.22 4107 76.53 394.53 144.95 82.83 14.79 18.13 10.80 12.27 10.38 a 1 1 1
RHS 140x80 / 5 dxf 140 80 5.0 7.5 5.0 16.3 0.427 2073 1319 754 5.340 50.8 76.28 94.32 2.211 32.7 55.28 63.63 4994 91.94 487.20 179.00 102.28 17.93 22.17 12.99 14.95 12.47 a 1 1 1
RHS 140x80 / 6.3 dxf 140 80 6.3 9.4 6.3 20.2 0.424 2571 1636 935 6.458 50.1 92.26 115.4 2.648 32.1 66.20 77.51 6065 110.0 604.10 221.95 126.83 21.68 27.13 15.56 18.21 14.92 a 1 1 1
RHS 140x80 / 8 dxf 140 80 8.0 12.0 8.0 25.1 0.419 3195 2033 1162 7.763 49.3 110.9 141.0 3.142 31.4 78.55 94.07 7329 130.4 750.90 275.88 157.65 26.06 33.13 18.46 22.11 17.70 a 1 1 1
RHS 140x80 / 10 dxf 140 80 10.0 15.0 10.0 30.6 0.414 3893 2477 1416 9.081 48.3 129.7 168.1 3.619 30.5 90.47 111.3 8621 150.3 914.78 336.10 192.05 30.48 39.50 21.26 26.16 20.39 a 1 1 1
RHS 150x100 / 4 dxf 150 100 4.0 6.0 4.0 15.1 0.490 1919 1151 768 6.073 56.3 80.97 97.41 3.240 41.1 64.81 73.64 6601 105.0 450.93 156.21 104.14 19.03 22.89 15.23 17.31 14.25 a 1 2 2
RHS 150x100 / 5 dxf 150 100 5.0 7.5 5.0 18.6 0.487 2373 1424 949 7.387 55.8 98.50 119.4 3.923 40.7 78.47 90.11 8067 126.9 557.70 193.19 128.79 23.15 28.07 18.44 21.18 17.22 a 1 1 1
RHS 150x100 / 6.3 dxf 150 100 6.3 9.4 6.3 23.1 0.484 2949 1769 1179 8.979 55.2 119.7 146.7 4.741 40.1 94.81 110.4 9865 153.1 692.93 240.04 160.03 28.14 34.48 22.28 25.94 20.77 a 1 1 1
RHS 150x100 / 8 dxf 150 100 8.0 12.0 8.0 28.9 0.479 3675 2205 1470 10.87 54.4 144.9 180.1 5.693 39.4 113.9 135.0 12030 183.5 863.70 299.20 199.46 34.06 42.32 26.76 31.72 24.90 a 1 1 1
RHS 150x100 / 10 dxf 150 100 10.0 15.0 10.0 35.3 0.474 4493 2696 1797 12.82 53.4 171.0 216.0 6.654 38.5 133.1 161.2 14320 214.2 1055.78 365.73 243.82 40.18 50.77 31.27 37.89 29.06 a 1 1 1
RHS 150x100 / 12.5 dxf 150 100 12.5 18.8 12.5 42.8 0.468 5457 3274 2183 14.88 52.2 198.4 256.2 7.631 37.4 152.6 190.0 16790 245.5 1282.48 444.26 296.18 46.62 60.20 35.86 44.66 33.31 a 1 1 1
RHS 160x80 / 4 dxf 160 80 4.0 6.0 4.0 14.4 0.470 1839 1226 613 6.122 57.7 76.53 94.73 2.070 33.5 51.74 58.30 4930 88.08 432.13 166.33 83.16 17.98 22.26 12.16 13.70 11.95 a 1 2 2
RHS 160x80 / 5 dxf 160 80 5.0 7.5 5.0 17.8 0.467 2273 1515 758 7.440 57.2 93.00 116.1 2.493 33.1 62.32 71.13 6000 106.0 534.20 205.61 102.81 21.86 27.27 14.65 16.71 14.38 a 1 1 1
RHS 160x80 / 6.3 dxf 160 80 6.3 9.4 6.3 22.2 0.464 2823 1882 941 9.032 56.6 112.9 142.4 2.991 32.6 74.78 86.80 7296 127.1 663.32 255.31 127.66 26.53 33.46 17.57 20.40 17.25 a 1 1 1
RHS 160x80 / 8 dxf 160 80 8.0 12.0 8.0 27.6 0.459 3515 2344 1172 10.91 55.7 136.4 174.5 3.558 31.8 88.96 105.6 8831 151.2 826.10 317.97 158.98 32.06 41.01 20.91 24.81 20.51 a 1 1 1
RHS 160x80 / 10 dxf 160 80 10.0 15.0 10.0 33.7 0.454 4293 2862 1431 12.84 54.7 160.6 209.0 4.112 31.0 102.8 125.3 10410 174.8 1008.78 388.28 194.14 37.73 49.12 24.16 29.45 23.72 a 1 1 1
RHS 160x80 / 12.5 dxf 160 80 12.5 18.8 12.5 40.9 0.448 5207 3472 1736 14.85 53.4 185.7 247.2 4.647 29.9 116.2 146.4 12040 197.9 1223.73 471.01 235.51 43.63 58.09 27.30 34.41 26.85 a 1 1 1
RHS 180x100 / 4 dxf 180 100 4.0 6.0 4.0 16.9 0.550 2159 1388 771 9.445 66.1 104.9 128.0 3.794 41.9 75.87 85.16 8521 127.1 507.33 188.30 104.61 24.66 30.08 17.83 20.01 17.25 a 1 3 3
RHS 180x100 / 5 dxf 180 100 5.0 7.5 5.0 21.0 0.547 2673 1718 955 11.53 65.7 128.1 157.3 4.601 41.5 92.02 104.4 10420 154.0 628.20 233.16 129.53 30.10 36.96 21.62 24.52 20.89 a 1 1 1
RHS 180x100 / 6.3 dxf 180 100 6.3 9.4 6.3 26.1 0.544 3327 2139 1188 14.07 65.0 156.4 193.8 5.572 40.9 111.4 128.1 12770 186.2 781.76 290.15 161.20 36.74 45.54 26.19 30.10 25.27 a 1 1 1
RHS 180x100 / 8 dxf 180 100 8.0 12.0 8.0 32.6 0.539 4155 2671 1484 17.13 64.2 190.4 238.8 6.711 40.2 134.2 157.1 15600 224.1 976.50 362.43 201.35 44.74 56.12 31.54 36.91 30.41 a 1 1 1
RHS 180x100 / 10 dxf 180 100 10.0 15.0 10.0 40.0 0.534 5093 3274 1819 20.36 63.2 226.2 287.9 7.874 39.3 157.5 188.2 18620 262.8 1196.78 444.19 246.77 53.17 67.67 37.01 44.23 35.66 a 1 1 1
RHS 180x100 / 12.5 dxf 180 100 12.5 18.8 12.5 48.7 0.528 6207 3990 2217 23.85 62.0 265.0 343.7 9.076 38.2 181.5 222.9 21910 303.1 1458.73 541.41 300.78 62.27 80.76 42.66 52.37 41.12 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x100 / 4 dxf 200 100 4.0 6.0 4.0 18.2 0.590 2319 1546 773 12.23 72.6 122.3 150.4 4.162 42.4 83.25 92.84 9834 141.9 544.93 209.74 104.87 28.73 35.34 19.56 21.82 19.25 a 1 4 4
RHS 200x100 / 5 dxf 200 100 5.0 7.5 5.0 22.6 0.587 2873 1915 958 14.95 72.1 149.5 185.0 5.053 41.9 101.1 113.9 12040 172.0 675.20 259.88 129.94 35.12 43.48 23.75 26.76 23.34 a 1 2 2
RHS 200x100 / 6.3 dxf 200 100 6.3 9.4 6.3 28.1 0.584 3579 2386 1193 18.29 71.5 182.9 228.3 6.125 41.4 122.5 139.9 14750 208.4 840.98 323.69 161.85 42.98 53.65 28.79 32.88 28.27 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x100 / 8 dxf 200 100 8.0 12.0 8.0 35.1 0.579 4475 2984 1492 22.34 70.6 223.4 282.0 7.390 40.6 147.8 171.8 18040 251.2 1051.70 404.80 202.40 52.49 66.26 34.73 40.37 34.09 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x100 / 10 dxf 200 100 10.0 15.0 10.0 43.1 0.574 5493 3662 1831 26.64 69.6 266.4 340.9 8.688 39.8 173.8 206.2 21560 295.3 1290.78 496.82 248.41 62.61 80.10 40.83 48.46 40.07 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x100 / 12.5 dxf 200 100 12.5 18.8 12.5 52.7 0.568 6707 4472 2236 31.36 68.4 313.6 408.2 10.04 38.7 200.8 244.7 25410 341.5 1576.23 606.69 303.34 73.70 95.93 47.19 57.51 46.33 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x100 / 16 dxf 200 100 16.0 24.0 16.0 65.2 0.559 8301 5534 2767 36.78 66.6 367.8 491.1 11.47 37.2 229.5 290.4 29820 391.1 1950.81 750.87 375.43 86.44 115.40 53.93 68.25 53.06 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x120 / 6.3 dxf 200 120 6.3 9.4 6.3 30.1 0.624 3831 2394 1436 20.65 73.4 206.5 252.7 9.290 49.2 154.8 176.9 20280 255.5 900.20 324.83 194.90 48.54 59.38 36.38 41.58 34.66 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x120 / 8 dxf 200 120 8.0 12.0 8.0 37.6 0.619 4795 2997 1798 25.29 72.6 252.9 312.7 11.28 48.5 188.1 218.1 24950 309.9 1126.90 406.64 243.98 59.42 73.48 44.20 51.26 42.04 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x120 / 10 dxf 200 120 10.0 15.0 10.0 46.3 0.614 5893 3683 2210 30.26 71.7 302.6 378.9 13.37 47.6 222.9 263.2 30010 366.9 1384.78 499.69 299.81 71.10 89.03 52.38 61.84 49.78 a 1 1 1
RHS 200x120 / 12.5 dxf 200 120 12.5 18.8 12.5 56.6 0.608 7207 4505 2703 35.76 70.4 357.6 455.1 15.62 46.6 260.4 314.3 35690 428.3 1693.73 611.17 366.70 84.04 106.95 61.18 73.86 58.11 a 1 1 1
RHS 250x150 / 6.3 dxf 250 150 6.3 9.4 6.3 38.0 0.784 4839 3024 1814 41.43 92.5 331.4 402.4 18.74 62.2 249.9 282.5 40540 412.9 1137.08 410.31 246.19 77.88 94.56 58.73 66.39 56.03 a 1 2 2
RHS 250x150 / 8 dxf 250 150 8.0 12.0 8.0 47.7 0.779 6075 3797 2278 51.11 91.7 408.9 500.6 22.98 61.5 306.4 350.5 50210 505.6 1427.70 515.18 309.11 96.09 117.65 72.00 82.36 68.59 a 1 1 1
RHS 250x150 / 10 dxf 250 150 10.0 15.0 10.0 58.8 0.774 7493 4683 2810 61.74 90.8 493.9 610.7 27.55 60.6 367.3 426.0 60900 605.2 1760.78 635.37 381.22 116.06 143.51 86.32 100.12 82.12 a 1 1 1
RHS 250x150 / 12.5 dxf 250 150 12.5 18.8 12.5 72.3 0.768 9207 5755 3453 73.87 89.6 590.9 740.0 32.65 59.6 435.4 514.0 73260 716.6 2163.73 780.77 468.46 138.87 173.89 102.31 120.79 97.23 a 1 1 1
RHS 250x150 / 14.2 dxf 250 150 14.2 21.3 14.2 81.1 0.763 10337 6461 3876 81.41 88.7 651.3 822.7 35.76 58.8 476.8 569.7 81020 784.4 2429.21 876.57 525.94 153.05 193.34 112.04 133.88 106.42 a 1 1 1
RHS 250x150 / 16 dxf 250 150 16.0 24.0 16.0 90.3 0.759 11501 7188 4313 88.79 87.9 710.4 905.8 38.73 58.0 516.4 625.1 88680 849.5 2702.81 975.29 585.18 166.93 212.86 121.36 146.91 115.26 a 1 1 1
RHS 260x180 / 6.3 dxf 260 180 6.3 9.4 6.3 41.9 0.864 5343 3157 2186 51.66 98.3 397.4 474.9 29.29 74.0 325.4 368.9 58100 523.7 1255.52 428.34 296.54 93.38 111.59 76.47 86.68 71.06 a 1 2 2
RHS 260x180 / 8 dxf 260 180 8.0 12.0 8.0 52.7 0.859 6715 3968 2747 63.90 97.5 491.5 591.9 36.08 73.3 400.9 459.0 72210 644.0 1578.10 538.39 372.73 115.51 139.09 94.21 107.85 87.38 a 1 1 1
RHS 260x180 / 10 dxf 260 180 10.0 15.0 10.0 65.1 0.854 8293 4900 3392 77.41 96.6 595.5 723.6 43.51 72.4 483.4 559.9 87980 775.1 1948.78 664.85 460.28 139.94 170.06 113.60 131.59 105.16 a 1 1 1
RHS 260x180 / 12.5 dxf 260 180 12.5 18.8 12.5 80.1 0.848 10207 6032 4176 92.99 95.4 715.3 879.4 51.96 71.3 577.3 678.7 106400 923.8 2398.73 818.35 566.55 168.10 206.67 135.67 159.48 125.34 a 1 1 1
RHS 260x180 / 14.2 dxf 260 180 14.2 21.3 14.2 90.1 0.843 11473 6780 4694 102.8 94.6 790.6 979.8 57.19 70.6 635.5 754.7 118200 1016 2696.17 919.83 636.81 185.80 230.26 149.34 177.35 137.83 a 1 1 1
RHS 260x180 / 16 dxf 260 180 16.0 24.0 16.0 100.3 0.839 12781 7553 5229 112.5 93.8 865.0 1081 62.31 69.8 692.3 831.1 129900 1106 3003.61 1024.72 709.42 203.28 254.09 162.69 195.31 150.02 a 1 1 1
RHS 300x200 / 6.3 dxf 300 200 6.3 9.4 6.3 47.9 0.984 6099 3659 2439 78.29 113.3 521.9 623.8 41.93 82.9 419.3 472.4 84760 680.6 1433.18 496.47 330.98 122.66 146.58 98.55 111.00 92.34 a 1 4 4
RHS 300x200 / 8 dxf 300 200 8.0 12.0 8.0 60.3 0.979 7675 4605 3070 97.17 112.5 647.8 779.3 51.84 82.2 518.4 589.2 105600 840.0 1803.70 624.82 416.55 152.23 183.14 121.83 138.45 113.96 a 1 2 2
RHS 300x200 / 10 dxf 300 200 10.0 15.0 10.0 74.5 0.974 9493 5696 3797 118.2 111.6 788.0 955.5 62.78 81.3 627.8 720.9 129100 1015 2230.78 772.77 515.18 185.17 224.54 147.52 169.40 137.75 a 1 1 1
RHS 300x200 / 12.5 dxf 300 200 12.5 18.8 12.5 91.9 0.968 11707 7024 4683 142.7 110.4 951.5 1165 75.37 80.2 753.7 877.0 156800 1217 2751.23 953.05 635.37 223.61 273.89 177.12 206.09 165.10 a 1 1 1
RHS 300x200 / 14.2 dxf 300 200 14.2 21.3 14.2 103.4 0.963 13177 7906 5271 158.3 109.6 1055 1302 83.28 79.5 832.8 977.8 174600 1343 3096.61 1072.70 715.13 248.04 305.92 195.70 229.78 182.24 a 1 1 1
RHS 300x200 / 16 dxf 300 200 16.0 24.0 16.0 115.4 0.959 14701 8821 5881 173.9 108.8 1159 1441 91.09 78.7 910.9 1080 192500 1468 3454.81 1196.78 797.85 272.45 338.53 214.06 253.77 199.16 a 1 1 1
RHS 350x250 / 6.3 dxf 350 250 6.3 9.4 6.3 57.8 1.184 7359 4293 3066 132.0 133.9 754.5 892.4 78.85 103.5 630.8 709.5 152100 1011 1729.28 582.40 416.00 177.30 209.71 148.24 166.72 137.19 a 2 4 4
RHS 350x250 / 8 dxf 350 250 8.0 12.0 8.0 72.8 1.179 9275 5411 3865 164.5 133.2 940.0 1118 97.98 102.8 783.9 887.8 190300 1254 2179.70 734.10 524.35 220.89 262.73 184.21 208.64 170.19 a 1 3 3
RHS 350x250 / 10 dxf 350 250 10.0 15.0 10.0 90.2 1.174 11493 6704 4789 201.0 132.3 1149 1375 119.4 101.9 955.0 1091 233500 1525 2700.78 909.59 649.71 269.94 323.20 224.41 256.31 206.96 a 1 1 1
RHS 350x250 / 12.5 dxf 350 250 12.5 18.8 12.5 111.5 1.168 14207 8288 5920 244.2 131.1 1395 1685 144.4 100.8 1156 1334 285300 1842 3338.73 1124.44 803.17 327.91 395.91 271.55 313.43 249.93 a 1 1 1
RHS 350x250 / 14.2 dxf 350 250 14.2 21.3 14.2 125.7 1.163 16017 9343 6674 272.0 130.3 1554 1887 160.5 100.1 1284 1492 318900 2044 3764.01 1267.67 905.48 365.26 443.54 301.67 350.71 277.32 a 1 1 1
RHS 350x250 / 16 dxf 350 250 16.0 24.0 16.0 140.5 1.159 17901 10442 7459 300.1 129.5 1715 2095 176.5 99.3 1412 1655 353300 2246 4206.81 1416.80 1012.00 403.00 492.39 331.90 388.83 304.76 a 1 1 1
RHS 400x200 / 8 dxf 400 200 8.0 12.0 8.0 72.8 1.179 9275 6184 3092 195.6 145.2 978.1 1203 66.60 84.7 666.0 742.8 157300 1135 2179.70 838.97 419.48 229.85 282.72 156.51 174.55 153.98 a 1 4 4
RHS 400x200 / 10 dxf 400 200 10.0 15.0 10.0 90.2 1.174 11493 7662 3831 239.1 144.3 1196 1480 80.84 83.9 808.4 910.9 192600 1376 2700.78 1039.53 519.77 280.99 347.83 189.98 214.05 186.73 a 1 2 2
RHS 400x200 / 12.5 dxf 400 200 12.5 18.8 12.5 111.5 1.168 14207 9472 4736 290.6 143.0 1453 1813 97.38 82.8 973.8 1111 234400 1656 3338.73 1285.08 642.54 341.49 426.13 228.83 261.17 224.73 a 1 1 1
RHS 400x200 / 14.2 dxf 400 200 14.2 21.3 14.2 125.7 1.163 16017 10678 5339 323.8 142.2 1619 2032 107.8 82.1 1078 1242 261400 1834 3764.01 1448.77 724.38 380.48 477.44 253.41 291.78 248.77 a 1 1 1
RHS 400x200 / 16 dxf 400 200 16.0 24.0 16.0 140.5 1.159 17901 11934 5967 357.4 141.3 1787 2256 118.2 81.3 1182 1374 288700 2010 4206.81 1619.20 809.60 419.92 530.07 277.87 322.95 272.69 a 1 1 1
RHS 450x250 / 8 dxf 450 250 8.0 12.0 8.0 85.4 1.379 10875 6991 3884 300.8 166.3 1337 1622 121.4 105.7 971.3 1081 270800 1629 2555.70 948.56 526.98 314.18 381.12 228.26 254.14 221.04 a 1 4 4
RHS 450x250 / 10 dxf 450 250 10.0 15.0 10.0 105.9 1.374 13493 8674 4819 368.9 165.4 1640 2000 148.2 104.8 1185 1331 332800 1986 3170.78 1176.85 653.80 385.35 469.99 278.59 312.71 269.47 a 1 3 3
RHS 450x250 / 12.5 dxf 450 250 12.5 18.8 12.5 131.2 1.368 16707 10740 5967 450.3 164.2 2001 2458 179.7 103.7 1438 1631 407200 2406 3926.23 1457.23 809.57 470.27 577.53 337.89 383.19 326.44 a 1 1 1
RHS 450x250 / 14.2 dxf 450 250 14.2 21.3 14.2 148.0 1.363 18857 12122 6735 503.1 163.3 2236 2759 200.0 103.0 1600 1827 455800 2675 4431.41 1644.74 913.74 525.51 648.42 375.97 429.40 363.00 a 1 1 1
RHS 450x250 / 16 dxf 450 250 16.0 24.0 16.0 165.6 1.359 21101 13565 7536 557.1 162.5 2476 3070 220.4 102.2 1763 2029 505500 2947 4958.81 1840.48 1022.49 581.81 721.53 414.38 476.82 399.84 a 1 1 1
RHS 500x300 / 10 dxf 500 300 10.0 15.0 10.0 121.6 1.574 15493 9683 5810 537.6 186.3 2150 2595 244.4 125.6 1629 1826 524500 2696 3640.78 1313.75 788.25 505.36 609.77 382.88 428.99 365.79 a 1 4 4
RHS 500x300 / 12.5 dxf 500 300 12.5 18.8 12.5 150.8 1.568 19207 12005 7203 658.1 185.1 2633 3196 297.8 124.5 1985 2244 643900 3281 4513.73 1628.75 977.25 618.64 750.96 466.56 527.24 445.14 a 1 2 2
RHS 500x300 / 14.2 dxf 500 300 14.2 21.3 14.2 170.3 1.563 21697 13561 8136 737.0 184.3 2948 3593 332.4 123.8 2216 2519 722400 3660 5098.81 1839.88 1103.93 692.78 844.44 520.84 592.04 496.53 a 1 1 1
RHS 500x300 / 16 dxf 500 300 16.0 24.0 16.0 190.8 1.559 24301 15188 9113 817.8 183.4 3271 4005 367.7 123.0 2451 2804 803300 4044 5710.81 2060.71 1236.43 768.76 941.19 576.03 658.88 548.74 a 1 1 1
RHS 500x300 / 20 dxf 500 300 20.0 30.0 20.0 235.3 1.548 29971 18732 11239 987.8 181.5 3951 4885 440.8 121.3 2939 3408 974500 4842 7043.14 2541.47 1524.88 928.50 1148.09 690.56 800.97 656.95 a 1 1 1
Notes
  1. The design resistances of the profiles correspond to cross-section resistances reduced by the partial material factor γM0 in accordance with EN1993-1-1 §6.2.3(2), §6.2.4(2), §6.2.5(2), §6.2.6(2). The aforementioned design resistances do not take into account a) flexural buckling, b) local shell buckling, c) interaction effects of axial force, shear force, bending moment, and d) interaction effects of biaxial bending. Therefore the presented cross-section resistances are indicative values applicable for special cases. In general the overall element resistance is smaller and must be verified according to the relevant clauses of EN1993-1-1 Section 6.
  2. The outer rounding radius ro and the inner rounding radius ri are nominal values to be used in calculations and they are specified in the design standards EN 10210-2 §A.3 for hot finished structural hollow sections and EN 10219-2 §B.3 for cold formed structural hollow sections. The actual rounding radii may vary within the tolerances allowed by the aforementioned standards and the sectional properties still remain valid.
Details

Design properties for rectangular hollow steel sections (RHS) and square hollow steel sections (SHS) according to EN1993-1-1

Differences between Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) and Square Hollow Sections (SHS)

In general the procedure for calculating the properties of Square Hollow Sections (SHS) is the same as for Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS). The equations for Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) may also be used for Square Hollow Sections (SHS) by substituting h = b. The rest of the text covers the more general case of Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS).

Definition of the cross-section

For typical Rectangular Hollow Sections (RHS) the geometric properties of the cross-section are defined in the following standards:

  • EN 10210-2: Hot finished structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels

  • EN 10219-2: Cold formed welded structural hollow sections of non-alloy and fine grain steels

The geometric properties that define the cross-section are: height h, width b and wall thickness t. In addition the rounding of the corners is defined by the outer rounding radius ro and the inner rounding radius ri. The notation is defined in EN1993-1-1 §1.7 which is reproduced in the figure above.

The outer rounding radius ro and the inner rounding radius ri are specified as nominal values to be used in calculations in the standards and they are specified in the design standards EN 10210-2 §A.3 for hot finished structural hollow sections and EN 10219-2 §B.3 for cold formed structural hollow sections:

  • EN 10210-2 (Hot finished):

    • For any thickness: ro = 1.5t and ri = 1.0t

  • EN 10219-2 (Cold formed):

    • For thickness t ≤ 6 mm: ro = 2.0t and ri = 1.0t

    • For thickness 6 mm > t ≤ 10 mm: ro = 2.5t and ri = 1.5t

    • For thickness t > 10 mm: ro = 3.0t and ri = 2.0t

The actual rounding radii may vary within the tolerances allowed by the aforementioned standards and the sectional properties still remain valid.

Geometric properties

The basic geometric properties of the cross-section are calculated by using the fundamental relations of mechanics. Due to symmetry the centroid of the cross-section (center of mass) as well as the shear center are located at the center. The geometric quantities include the total area of the cross section A and the second moments of the area Iy and Iz about the major axis y-y and about the minor axis z-z respectively. They are calculated by adding the contribution of the external boundary and then subtracting the contribution of the internal void where the rounding of the corners is properly taken into account:

A = 2t⋅(b + h - 2t) - (4 - π)⋅(ro2 - ri2)

Iy = bh3 / 12 - (b - 2⋅t)⋅(h - 2t)3 / 12 - 4(Ig + Aghg,y2) + 4(Iξξ + Aξξhξ,y2)

Iz = hb3 / 12 - (h - 2⋅t)⋅(b - 2t)3 / 12 - 4(Ig + Aghg,z2) + 4(Iξξ + Aξξhξ,z2)

where the following auxiliary quantities are defined in EN 10210-2 §A.3 and EN 10219-2 §B.3:

Ag = (1 - π / 4)⋅ro2

Aξξ = (1 - π / 4)⋅ri2

hg,y = h / 2 - ro ⋅ (10 - 3π) / (12 - 3π) and hg,z = b / 2 - ro ⋅ (10 - 3π) / (12 - 3π)

hξ,y = (h - 2t) / 2 - ri ⋅ (10 - 3π) / (12 - 3π) and hξ,z = (b - 2t) / 2 - ri ⋅ (10 - 3π) / (12 - 3π)

Ig = [1/3 - π/16 - 1 / (3⋅(12 - 3π))]⋅ro4

Iξξ = [1/3 - π/16 - 1 / (3⋅(12 - 3π))]⋅ri4

Shear area

The shear areas Av,z and Av,y for the case of rectangular hollow sections are specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.6(3) as:

Load parallel to depth: Av,z = Ah / (b + h)

Load parallel to width: Av,y = Ab / (b + h)

Elastic section modulus

The elastic section modulii Wel,y and Wel,z about the major axis y-y and the minor axis z-z respectively are calculated by dividing the second moment of the area Iy and Iz with the corresponding distance from the centroid to the most distant edge:

Wel,y = Iy / (h / 2)

Wel,z = Iz / (b / 2)

Plastic section modulus

The plastic section modulii Wpl,y and Wpl,z about the major axis y-y and the minor axis z-z respectively correspond to the maximum plastic bending moment when the axial force of the cross-section is zero and the stress profile is fully plastic. Due to symmetry when the full plastic bending stress profile is reached with zero axial force the section is divided into two parts separated by the axis of symmetry. The plastic section modulus corresponds to the sum of first moments of the area of the two halves about the major axis y-y and the minor axis z-z respectively.

Wpl,y = bh2 / 4 - (b - 2t)⋅(h - 2t)2 / 4 - 4⋅Aghg,y + 4⋅Aξξhξ,y

Wpl,z = hb2 / 4 - (h - 2t)⋅(b - 2t)2 / 4 - 4⋅Aghg,z + 4⋅Aξξhξ,z

Torsional properties

The torsional constant IT and the torsional modulus WT are defined in EN 10210-2 §A.3 and EN 10219-2 §B.3. The specified values are good approximations for the case of thin walled rectangular hollow sections with rounded corners. In the following equations the quantity h in EN 10210 and EN 10219 is denoted as h0:

IT = t3h0 / 3 + 2⋅KAh

WT = IT / (t + K / t)

where the following auxiliary quantities are defined in EN 10210-2 §A.3 and EN 10219-2 §B.3:

Rc = (ro + ri) / 2

Ah = (b - t)⋅(h - t) - Rc2⋅(4 - π)

h0 = 2⋅[(b - t) + (h - t)] - 2⋅Rc⋅(4 - π)

K = 2⋅Aht / h0

Design cross-section resistance

The design resistance of the cross-section for axial force, shear force, and bending moment are calculated in accordance with EN1993-1-1 §6.2. They correspond to the gross cross-section resistance reduced by the steel partial material safety factor for cross-section resistance γM0 that is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.1 for buildings, or the relevant parts of EN1993 for other type of structures, and the National Annex.

The aforementioned design resistances do not take into account a) flexural buckling, b) lateral torsional buckling, c) interaction effects of axial force, shear force, bending moment, and d) interaction effects of biaxial bending. Therefore the presented cross-section resistances are indicative values applicable for special cases. In general the overall element resistance is smaller and must be verified according to the relevant clauses of EN1993-1-1 Section 6.

Design axial force resistance

The design plastic resistance of the cross-section in uniform tension is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.3(2). The design plastic resistance of the cross-section in uniform compression for cross-section class 1, 2, 3 is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.4(2). The aforementioned axial force resistances correspond to the gross cross-sectional area A and the steel yield stress fy:

Npl,Rd = Afy / γM0

Design shear force resistance

The design plastic shear resistance of the cross-section is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.6(2). It corresponds to the relevant shear area Av,z or Av,y, for shear force along the axis z-z and y-y respectively, multiplied by the steel yield stress in pure shear fy / √3 corresponding to the yield criterion in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.1(5)::

Vpl,Rd,z = Av,z ⋅ ( fy / √3 ) / γM0

Vpl,Rd,y = Av,y ⋅ ( fy / √3 ) / γM0

Design torsional moment resistance

The design torsional moment resistance of the cross-section for the case of St. Venant torsion is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.7. The shear stress due to St. Venant torsion is derived from the theory of elasticity as specified above. For elastic verification the yield criterion in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.1(5) is applied, i.e. the shear stress τ is limited the steel yield stress in pure shear fy / √3:

TRd = WT ⋅ ( fy / √3 ) / γM0

Design elastic bending moment resistance

The design elastic bending moment resistance of the cross-section is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.5(2). It corresponds to the relevant elastic section modulus Wel,y or Wel,z, for bending about the major axis y-y or about the minor axis z-z respectively, multiplied by the steel yield stress fy:

Mpl,Rd,y = Wel,yfy / γM0

Mpl,Rd,z = Wel,zfy / γM0

The elastic bending moment resistance is applicable for class 3 cross-sections. For class 4 cross-sections the effective cross-section properties must be defined that take into account the reduced effective widths of the compression parts of the cross-section as specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.2.5.

Design plastic bending moment resistance

The design plastic bending moment resistance of the cross-section is specified in EN1993-1-1 §6.2.5(2). It corresponds to the relevant plastic section modulus Wpl,y or Wpl,z, for bending about the major axis y-y or about the minor axis z-z respectively, multiplied by the steel yield stress fy:

Mpl,Rd,y = Wpl,yfy / γM0

Mpl,Rd,z = Wpl,zfy / γM0

The plastic bending moment resistance is applicable for class 1 or 2 cross-sections.

Cross-section class

The classification of cross-sections is specified in EN1993-1-1 §5.5. The role of the classification is to identify the extent to which the resistance and rotation capacity of the cross-section are limited by local buckling of its parts.

Four section classes are identified:

  • Class 1: Plastic bending moment resistance develops and plastic hinge develops with rotation capacity adequate for plastic analysis.

  • Class 2: Plastic bending moment resistance develops but the rotation capacity is limited by local buckling.

  • Class 3: Elastic bending moment resistance develops but local buckling prevents the development of plastic resistance.

  • Class 4: Elastic bending moment resistance cannot develop because local buckling occurs before the yield stress is reached at the extreme fiber. Effective widths are used to account for the effects of local buckling of compression parts.

The classification of the cross-section parts (web parallel to depth, web parallel to width) is specified in EN1993-1-1 Table 5.2. The class of the compression part depends on its width c to thickness t ratio, adjusted by the factor ε that takes into account the value of the steel yield stress fy:

ε = (235 MPa / fy)0.5

In general the class of the compression part is more unfavorable when it is subjected to uniform compression, as compared to pure bending. Indicative classification of the webs of the steel profiles is presented for the characteristic cases of pure uniform compression and pure bending moment. In general the class may have an intermediate value if the stress profile of the compression part occurs from a combination of compressive axial force and bending moment. The classification of the total cross-section is determined by the class of its most unfavorable compression part.

The examined width to thickness limits c / t for cross-section classification according to EN1993-1-1 Table 5.2 are presented below:

Width to thickness limits for cross-section classification according to EN1993-1-1 Table 5.2
Class Web in pure compression Web in pure bending
Class 1 c / t ≤ 33ε c / t ≤ 72ε
Class 2 c / t ≤ 38ε c / t ≤ 83ε
Class 3 c / t ≤ 42ε c / t ≤ 124ε

For the classification of the web parallel to depth: c = h - 2t - 2ri.

For the classification of the web parallel to width: c = b - 2t - 2ri

Buckling curves

The appropriate buckling curve for rectangular hollow sections and square hollow sections is specified in EN1993-1-1 Table 6.2 depending on the steel yield stress fy, and whether the section is hot finished or cold formed as described in the following table:

Buckling curve of rectangular hollow sections and square hollow sections according to EN1993-1-1 Table 6.2
Type Steel Class Buckling Curve
Hot finished S235, S275, S355, S420 a
Hot finished S460 a0
Cold formed S235, S275, S355, S420 c
Cold formed S460 c