Hint: Select custom for steel class in order to specify the yield strength or select custom profile in order to manually specify the cross-section dimensions

Steel class

Custom
S 235 (EN10025-2)
S 275 (EN10025-2)
S 355 (EN10025-2)
S 450 (EN10025-2)
S 275 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 355 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 420 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 460 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 275 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 355 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 420 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 460 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 235 W (EN10025-5)
S 355 W (EN10025-5)
S 460 Q/QL/QL1 (EN10025-6)

Steel yield strength

f_{y}

MPa

Cross-section

Custom
IPE80
IPE100
IPE120
IPE140
IPE160
IPE180
IPE200
IPE220
IPE240
IPE270
IPE300
IPE330
IPE360
IPE400
IPE450
IPE500
IPE550
IPE600
HEA100
HEA120
HEA140
HEA160
HEA180
HEA200
HEA220
HEA240
HEA260
HEA280
HEA300
HEA320
HEA340
HEA360
HEA400
HEA450
HEA500
HEA550
HEA600
HEA650
HEA700
HEA800
HEA900
HEA1000
HEB100
HEB120
HEB140
HEB160
HEB180
HEB200
HEB220
HEB240
HEB260
HEB280
HEB300
HEB320
HEB340
HEB360
HEB400
HEB450
HEB500
HEB550
HEB600
HEB650
HEB700
HEB800
HEB900
HEB1000
HEM100
HEM120
HEM140
HEM160
HEM180
HEM200
HEM220
HEM240
HEM260
HEM280
HEM300
HEM320
HEM340
HEM360
HEM400
HEM450
HEM500
HEM550
HEM600
HEM650
HEM700
HEM800
HEM900
HEM1000

Select custom profile in order to manually specify the cross-section dimensions or specify welded cross-section

Total height of cross-section

h

mm

Flange thickness

t_{f}

mm

Thickness of web

t_{w}

mm

Section type

Rolled
Welded

Section class

Auto
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3

If auto is selected the section classification will be calculated automatically for the stress profile corresponding to axial force and bending about major axis. Otherwise the section class can be specified by the user. Class 4 is not supported in this calculation.

Element system length

L

m

Buckling length factors are specified below for each buckling mode

Axial force (compression negative)

N

kN

Shear force along y-y axis (parallel to flanges)

V_{y}

kN

Shear force along z-z axis (parallel to web)

V_{z}

kN

Bending moment about major axis y-y (positive when tension at bottom flange)

M_{y}

kNm

Positive value corresponds to bending inducing tension stress at the bottom flange

Bending moment about minor axis z-z

M_{z}

kNm

Note: The verifications for torsional moment M _{t} are not examined in this calculation. For open cross-sections torsional moment occurs primarily as warping torsional moment due to rotation compatibility. If the steel member directly supports torsional loads a closed cross-section is recommended.

1. Flexural buckling about major axis y-y (consider the shape of M _{y} bending moment diagram inside effective length between points braced along z-z direction)

Buckling length factor for flexural buckling about major axis y-y

L_{cr,y} / L

For standard pinned supports it is the distance between points braced along z-z direction for bending about y-y axis as a portion of the system length. For other simplified support conditions: fixed-fixed=0.5~0.65, pinned-fixed=0.7~0.8, cantilever=2.0~2.1.

Shape of M _{y} bending moment inside the effective length L _{cr,y}

Uniform (no internal loading)
Linear (no internal loading)
Parabolic (uniform internal loading)
Triangular (concetrated force loading at midspan)

When in doubt the uniform bending moment diagram may be specified to produce conservative results

Ratio of end moment with smallest absolute value to end moment with largest absolute value, taking into account signs, inside the effective length L _{cr,y}

ψ_{y}

Support conditions corresponding to bending moment diagram M y inside the length L _{cr,y}

Pinned/Pinned
Fixed/Pinned
Fixed/Fixed

2. Flexural buckling about minor axis z-z (consider the shape of M _{z} bending moment diagram inside effective length between points braced along y-y direction)

Buckling length factor for flexural buckling about minor axis z-z

L_{cr,z} / L

For standard pinned supports it is the distance between points braced along y-y direction for bending about z-z axis as a portion of the system length. For other simplified support conditions: fixed-fixed=0.5~0.65, pinned-fixed=0.7~0.8, cantilever=2.0~2.1.

Shape of M _{z} bending moment inside the effective length L _{cr,z}

Uniform (no internal loading)
Linear (no internal loading)
Parabolic (uniform internal loading)
Triangular (concetrated force loading at midspan)

When in doubt the uniform bending moment diagram may be specified to produce conservative results

Ratio of end moment with smallest absolute value to end moment with largest absolute value, taking into account signs, inside the effective length L _{cr,z}

ψ_{z}

Support conditions corresponding to bending moment diagram M z inside the length L _{cr,z}

Pinned/Pinned
Fixed/Pinned
Fixed/Fixed

3. Lateral torsional buckling (consider the shape of M _{y} bending moment diagram inside effective length between points braced along y-y direction)

Member susceptible to torsional deformations that induce lateral-torsional buckling

Yes
No

Members with open cross-section not susceptible to torsional deformations must be continuously restraint against torsion along their length. For this case torsional and lateral-torsional buckling are not verified.

Part of system length between lateral supports for lateral torsional buckling

L_{LT} / L

For standard fork supports it is the distance between points braced along y-y direction for bending about y-y axis as a portion of the system length. It is recommended to use the distance between lateral supports also for the cases where additional restraints exist as a conservative approximation.

Shape of M _{y} bending moment inside the length L _{LT}

Uniform (no internal loading)
Linear (no internal loading)
Parabolic (uniform internal loading)
Triangular (concetrated force loading at midspan)

When in doubt the uniform bending moment diagram may be specified to produce conservative results

Ratio of end moment with smallest absolute value to end moment with largest absolute value, taking into account signs, inside the length L _{LT}

ψ_{LT}

Support conditions corresponding to bending moment diagram M y at the ends of length L _{LT}

Pinned/Pinned
Fixed/Pinned
Fixed/Fixed

Point of load application

Top flange
Centroid
Bottom flange

It is assumed that loads act in the same direction as gravity, otherwise the flange designation top/bottom must be reversed

4. Torsional & torsional-flexural buckling

Buckling length factor for torsional buckling

L_{T} / L

According to EN1993-1-3 §6.2.3(9) the recommended value is 1.0 for connections that provide partial restraint against torsion and warping and 0.7 for connections that provide significant restraint against torsion and warping.