Hint: Select custom for steel class in order to specify the yield strength or select custom profile in order to manually specify the cross-section dimensions

Steel class

Custom
S 235 (EN10025-2)
S 275 (EN10025-2)
S 355 (EN10025-2)
S 450 (EN10025-2)
S 275 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 355 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 420 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 460 N/NL (EN10025-3)
S 275 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 355 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 420 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 460 M/ML (EN10025-4)
S 235 W (EN10025-5)
S 355 W (EN10025-5)
S 460 Q/QL/QL1 (EN10025-6)

Steel yield strength

f_{y}

MPa

Cross-section

Custom
IPE80
IPE100
IPE120
IPE140
IPE160
IPE180
IPE200
IPE220
IPE240
IPE270
IPE300
IPE330
IPE360
IPE400
IPE450
IPE500
IPE550
IPE600
HEA100
HEA120
HEA140
HEA160
HEA180
HEA200
HEA220
HEA240
HEA260
HEA280
HEA300
HEA320
HEA340
HEA360
HEA400
HEA450
HEA500
HEA550
HEA600
HEA650
HEA700
HEA800
HEA900
HEA1000
HEB100
HEB120
HEB140
HEB160
HEB180
HEB200
HEB220
HEB240
HEB260
HEB280
HEB300
HEB320
HEB340
HEB360
HEB400
HEB450
HEB500
HEB550
HEB600
HEB650
HEB700
HEB800
HEB900
HEB1000
HEM100
HEM120
HEM140
HEM160
HEM180
HEM200
HEM220
HEM240
HEM260
HEM280
HEM300
HEM320
HEM340
HEM360
HEM400
HEM450
HEM500
HEM550
HEM600
HEM650
HEM700
HEM800
HEM900
HEM1000
UB127x76x13
UB152x89x16
UB178x102x19
UB203x102x23
UB203x133x25
UB203x133x30
UB254x102x22
UB254x102x25
UB254x102x28
UB254x146x31
UB254x146x37
UB254x146x43
UB305x102x25
UB305x102x28
UB305x102x33
UB305x127x37
UB305x127x42
UB305x127x48
UB305x165x40
UB305x165x46
UB305x165x54
UB356x171x45
UB356x171x51
UB356x171x57
UB356x171x67
UB406x140x39
UB406x140x46
UB406x140x53
UB406x178x54
UB406x178x60
UB406x178x67
UB406x178x74
UB406x178x85
UB457x152x52
UB457x152x60
UB457x152x67
UB457x152x74
UB457x152x82
UB457x191x67
UB457x191x74
UB457x191x82
UB457x191x89
UB457x191x98
UB457x191x106
UB457x191x133
UB457x191x161
UB460x280x113
UB460x280x128
UB460x280x144
UB460x280x158
UB460x280x177
UB460x280x193
UB460x280x213
UB460x280x235
UB460x280x260
UB460x280x286
UB460x280x315
UB533x165x66
UB533x165x74
UB533x165x85
UB533x210x82
UB533x210x92
UB533x210x101
UB533x210x109
UB533x210x122
UB533x210x138
UB533x312x150
UB533x312x165
UB533x312x182
UB533x312x196
UB533x312x219
UB533x312x248
UB533x312x272
UB610x178x82
UB610x178x92
UB610x178x100
UB610x229x101
UB610x229x113
UB610x229x125
UB610x229x140
UB610x305x149
UB610x305x179
UB610x305x238
UB610x324x155
UB610x324x174
UB610x324x195
UB610x324x217
UB610x324x241
UB610x324x262
UB610x324x285
UB610x324x307
UB610x324x341
UB610x324x372
UB686x254x125
UB686x254x140
UB686x254x152
UB686x254x170
UB762x267x134
UB762x267x147
UB762x267x161
UB762x267x173
UB762x267x185
UB762x267x197
UB838x292x176
UB838x292x194
UB838x292x210
UB838x292x226
UB914x305x201
UB914x305x224
UB914x305x239
UB914x305x253
UB914x305x271
UB914x305x289
UB914x305x313
UB914x419x343
UB914x419x365
UB914x419x388
UB1016x305x222
UB1016x305x249
UB1016x305x272
UB1016x305x314
UB1016x305x349
UB1016x305x393
UB1016x305x437
UB1016x305x487
UC152x152x23
UC152x152x30
UC152x152x37
UC152x152x44
UC152x152x51
UC203x203x46
UC203x203x52
UC203x203x60
UC203x203x71
UC203x203x86
UC203x203x100
UC203x203x113
UC203x203x127
UC254x254x73
UC254x254x81
UC254x254x89
UC254x254x101
UC254x254x107
UC254x254x115
UC254x254x132
UC254x254x149
UC254x254x167
UC305x305x97
UC305x305x107
UC305x305x118
UC305x305x129
UC305x305x137
UC305x305x143
UC305x305x158
UC305x305x179
UC305x305x198
UC305x305x202
UC305x305x226
UC305x305x240
UC305x305x253
UC305x305x283
UC356x368x129
UC356x368x134
UC356x368x147
UC356x368x153
UC356x368x162
UC356x368x177
UC356x368x179
UC356x368x196
UC356x368x202
UC356x406x216
UC356x406x235
UC356x406x262
UC356x406x287
UC356x406x314
UC356x406x340
UC356x406x347
UC356x406x382
UC356x406x393
UC356x406x421
UC356x406x467
UC356x406x509
UC356x406x551
UC356x406x592
UC356x406x634
UBP203x203x45
UBP203x203x54
UBP254x254x63
UBP254x254x71
UBP254x254x85
UBP305x305x79
UBP305x305x88
UBP305x305x95
UBP305x305x110
UBP305x305x126
UBP305x305x149
UBP305x305x186
UBP305x305x223
UBP356x368x109
UBP356x368x133
UBP356x368x152
UBP356x368x174

Select custom profile in order to manually specify the cross-section dimensions or specify welded cross-section

Total height of cross-section

h

mm

Flange thickness

t_{f}

mm

Thickness of web

t_{w}

mm

Section type

Rolled
Welded

Section class

Auto
Class 1
Class 2
Class 3

If auto is selected the section classification will be calculated automatically for the stress profile corresponding to axial force and bending about major axis. Otherwise the section class can be specified by the user. Class 4 is not supported in this calculation.

Element system length

L

m

Buckling length factors are specified below for each buckling mode

Axial force (compression negative)

N

kN

Shear force along y-y axis (parallel to flanges)

V_{y}

kN

Shear force along z-z axis (parallel to web)

V_{z}

kN

Bending moment about major axis y-y (positive when tension at bottom flange)

M_{y}

kNm

Positive value corresponds to bending inducing tension stress at the bottom flange

Bending moment about minor axis z-z

M_{z}

kNm

Note: The verifications for torsional moment M _{t} are not examined in this calculation. For open cross-sections torsional moment occurs primarily as warping torsional moment due to rotation compatibility. If the steel member directly supports torsional loads a closed cross-section is recommended.

1. Flexural buckling about major axis y-y (consider the shape of M _{y} bending moment diagram inside effective length between points braced along z-z direction)

Buckling length factor for flexural buckling about major axis y-y

L_{cr,y} / L

For standard pinned supports it is the distance between points braced along z-z direction for bending about y-y axis as a portion of the system length. For other simplified support conditions: fixed-fixed=0.5~0.65, pinned-fixed=0.7~0.8, cantilever=2.0~2.1.

Shape of M _{y} bending moment inside the effective length L _{cr,y}

Uniform (no internal loading)
Linear (no internal loading)
Parabolic (uniform internal loading)
Triangular (concetrated force loading at midspan)

When in doubt the uniform bending moment diagram may be specified to produce conservative results

Ratio of end moment with smallest absolute value to end moment with largest absolute value, taking into account signs, inside the effective length L _{cr,y}

ψ_{y}

Support conditions corresponding to bending moment diagram M y inside the length L _{cr,y}

Pinned/Pinned
Fixed/Pinned
Fixed/Fixed

2. Flexural buckling about minor axis z-z (consider the shape of M _{z} bending moment diagram inside effective length between points braced along y-y direction)

Buckling length factor for flexural buckling about minor axis z-z

L_{cr,z} / L

For standard pinned supports it is the distance between points braced along y-y direction for bending about z-z axis as a portion of the system length. For other simplified support conditions: fixed-fixed=0.5~0.65, pinned-fixed=0.7~0.8, cantilever=2.0~2.1.

Shape of M _{z} bending moment inside the effective length L _{cr,z}

Uniform (no internal loading)
Linear (no internal loading)
Parabolic (uniform internal loading)
Triangular (concetrated force loading at midspan)

When in doubt the uniform bending moment diagram may be specified to produce conservative results

Ratio of end moment with smallest absolute value to end moment with largest absolute value, taking into account signs, inside the effective length L _{cr,z}

ψ_{z}

Support conditions corresponding to bending moment diagram M z inside the length L _{cr,z}

Pinned/Pinned
Fixed/Pinned
Fixed/Fixed

3. Lateral torsional buckling (consider the shape of M _{y} bending moment diagram inside effective length between points braced along y-y direction)

Member susceptible to torsional deformations that induce lateral-torsional buckling

Yes
No

Members with open cross-section not susceptible to torsional deformations must be continuously restraint against torsion along their length. For this case torsional and lateral-torsional buckling are not verified.

Part of system length between lateral supports for lateral torsional buckling

L_{LT} / L

For standard fork supports it is the distance between points braced along y-y direction for bending about y-y axis as a portion of the system length. It is recommended to use the distance between lateral supports also for the cases where additional restraints exist as a conservative approximation.

Shape of M _{y} bending moment inside the length L _{LT}

Uniform (no internal loading)
Linear (no internal loading)
Parabolic (uniform internal loading)
Triangular (concetrated force loading at midspan)

When in doubt the uniform bending moment diagram may be specified to produce conservative results

Ratio of end moment with smallest absolute value to end moment with largest absolute value, taking into account signs, inside the length L _{LT}

ψ_{LT}

Support conditions corresponding to bending moment diagram M y at the ends of length L _{LT}

Pinned/Pinned
Fixed/Pinned
Fixed/Fixed

Point of load application

Top flange
Centroid
Bottom flange

It is assumed that loads act in the same direction as gravity, otherwise the flange designation top/bottom must be reversed

4. Torsional & torsional-flexural buckling

Buckling length factor for torsional buckling

L_{T} / L

According to EN1993-1-3 §6.2.3(9) the recommended value is 1.0 for connections that provide partial restraint against torsion and warping and 0.7 for connections that provide significant restraint against torsion and warping.